Puppies and dogs get sick or injured just as we do - some of them with more regularity than we would like! Here are some common issues and what to do and when to see the vet. Remember I am not a vet, i am just a very experienced animal owner- if you feel something is not right and can't wait- call the vet.
First you should be very aware of your dogs normal behavior, eating drinking, elimination habits. You should know how to take your dog's temperature and to check for dehydration.
You should practice taking your puppies vital signs when they are not having a problem so you will know what they are normally.
Vomiting- It is very common for puppies and dogs to vomit. If you went to the vet every-time that happened you would be there an awful lot. If it is one instance and there are no other symptoms just clean it up and go on with your life. If it is a bit more serious than spitting up what he just ate, but no other symptoms, at the next meal you may want to feed rice and boiled chicken or hamburger - not a full portion. You can feed that for a couple meals - like a bland diet for humans. Be sure the dog has water, keep a somewhat closer eye on him for the day be sure he is drinking normally and all other behavior is normal. Any increase in the problem, or other symptoms call the vet.
Diarrhea- also very common depending on severity you can try feeding sweet potato, make sure dog is drinking- if it goes on longer than a day or it is bloody or severe- call the vet. bloody diarrhea is often pancreatitis which they need meds for. Often they can have parasites- particularly puppies. Severe cases can cause dehydration and they may need fluids injected subcutaneously.
Limping- your dog comes in from outside and is suddenly limping. First observe for a while sometimes they just smack something and it goes away. Keep them quiet, if they are crate trained put them in the crate. You can ice the injury, check for bleeding and swelling if it gets worse or does not clear up by the next day they should be seen. If the limping is severe- like they can not bear any weight and they appear to be in pain after the initial incident call the vet.